Section 504 and Title II require an educational institution to respond to disability-based harassment that is sufficiently serious to deny or limit a student’s ability to participate in or benefit from the recipient’s education programs and activities (i.e., creates a hostile environment).
When an educational institution knows or reasonably should know of possible disability harassment, it must take immediate and appropriate steps to investigate or otherwise determine what occurred. If an investigation reveals that the harassment created a hostile environment, the educational institution must take prompt and effective steps reasonably calculated to end the harassment, eliminate the hostile environment, prevent its recurrence, and, as appropriate, remedy its effects.
Note that school districts must also assess the effect of bullying and harassment on a student with a disability even if it was not disability-based harassment and even if it did not create a hostile environment. More information about the intersection of bullying and FAPE is available here.